Legalizing organ sales essay
This discussion paper hs owl fb1 thesis discussed at the February meeting. It is one of a series of papers prepared to aid the Council in its decisions about policy options in organ procurement, transplantation, and allocation. Each paper in the series is designed to facilitate and inform Council discussions and does not represent the official views of the Council or of the U.
Patients needing kidneys make up the largest group, accounting for roughly two-thirds of the list. By most projections, their numbers are likely to increase significantly in the next few decades. Neil Powe explained to the Council during the June meeting, we are seeing only the proverbial "tip of the iceberg" of chronic kidney disease: those Americans who have kidney failure make up only a very small percentage of those who have chronic kidney disease.
But the large numbers of Americans who are today creeping toward kidney failure are only a part of the picture: during the next few decades the baby boomers will become elderly and thus more susceptible to kidney failure; public health experts are predicting a surge in diabetes, source is one of the main causes of kidney disease; and American minority populations, which tend to have higher rates of kidney disease than whites, are expected to increase substantially.
Powe's analysis is correct, America is on the verge of a massive increase in the demand for transplantable kidneys. Some have argued that the best way to address organ failure is not by seeking to increase the legalize organ sales essay of organs from deceased or living donors, but rather through other means, that is, by exploiting the potential of preventive medicine and regenerative medicine.
The first would aim at improving the health of the population, and would thus shrink the number of individuals needing kidneys or other organs in the link, while the second would provide alternative treatments for organ failure, such as regenerating organs using stem cells.
If these methods were to achieve the results envisioned by their advocates, we could look forward to an eventual end of the organ shortage-and of the burdens of morbidity that fuel it. There is good reason, however, to doubt that these approaches will produce the desired results.
As for regenerative medicine, despite the progress that has been made, for example, in generating structurally integrated bladder cells, this solution is for now more theory than reality and will not constitute an effective response to organ failure in the near future. As for preventive medicine, if there were a well-established national program with considerable support from-and participation by-the American public, it could inhibit the growth in the need continue reading demand for organs, but it, too, faces serious limitations.
Although some causes of kidney disease are probably preventable through healthy practices such as a good diet, exercise, and sufficient sleep, preventive medicine cannot ultimately forestall the natural aging of the body.
As human beings age, their kidneys lose the ability to function properly, so much so that if a person does not die by other causes that person will die from organ failure.
With a graying Americathis complication cannot be overlooked. Also, as every nutritionist and yoga instructor knows, being healthy is difficult. Many Americans will not follow the strict regimen of diet and exercise necessary to get and legalize organ sales essay healthy, and even for those who change their ways, the disease processes set in motion by years and decades of sub-optimal health habits are often not readily reversible.
In light of these constraints, we can expect only so much from preventive medicine. If our aim is to satisfy the current as well as future demand for replacement organs, we have no choice but to look, first and foremost, to ways of increasing the organ supply. This essay will describe three policy proposals that aim at increasing the supply of organs.
Arguments for and against each proposal are given. Each proposal stands on its own and should be considered independently rather than in tandem with the other two. The first proposal concerns paired donation and list donation. The second proposal concerns donation after controlled cardiac death. The third proposal concerns cash payment for organs. As the Council considers each proposal, it is important to keep this crucial point in mind: expanding the organ supply is not the only aim of public policy in this area, important as it is, or the only standard by which potential reforms should be judged.
Other ends and purposes, such as the health and well-being of potential donors, care for the dying and the newly dead, and the dignity of the check this out vocation, must also be kept in mind.
Organ Sales Essay, Words, Cram
Paired Donation and List Donation Paired donation and list donation are creative forms of organ giving, allowing living donors who are biologically incompatible with their intended recipients to work together with one another, or in conjunction with the public waiting list, to make donation possible in cases when otherwise it would not be. In paired donation, two biologically incompatible, living donor-recipient pairs-pair A and pair B-can surmount the biological barriers to donation in this way: donor A gives a kidney to biologically compatible recipient B and donor B gives a kidney to biologically compatible recipient A.
When grading, the teacher may choose to give a common grade and feedback to all students in the group or to give individual grades and feedback to each member. If no groups legalize organ sales essay been made, then Moodle will make a default group of every student in the course.
For more details see this Youtube video Group Assignment 2. The assignment will not be classed as "submitted" until all members of the group have made a contribution. When one student has submitted, the other members of the group will be able to see who legalize organ sales essay has to submit. Grouping for student groups If a particular grouping is selected here, then the gradebook will display any other groups and non-grouped students in the "default group", while naming the group s that are in the chosen grouping.
Paired donations can occur between and among multiple pairs of donors and recipients. With list donation, a living donor who wishes to give a kidney to a biologically incompatible recipient donates the organ, instead, to the first individual in line on the waiting list for kidneys; in exchange, the living donor's intended recipient receives the next available compatible kidney or a higher place on the waiting list.
Paired donation and list donation can be combined and used together in a "chain exchange. Instead, only the donor of pair A matches the recipient of pair B. In a chain exchange, the donor of legalize organ sales essay A gives a kidney to the intended recipient of legalize organ sales essay B, and the donor of pair B in turn gives a kidney to the general kidney list.
The intended recipient of pair A then moves up the waiting list for kidneys.
Transplant surgeons in some centers have been matching donors and recipients and performing transplants in these ways for the past few years. In fact, there have been an estimated 62 list donations and transplants using paired donations carried out in the United States.
Let People Sell Their Organs
The aim of this sales essay is to clarify that paired donation and list donation do not fall under the prohibition against "valuable consideration. First, the OPTN could establish protocols for paired and list donation in a similar fashion as it has for the more conventional forms of donation.
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The OPTN would most likely create a article source paired donation registry and clear rules to ensure that list donations do not unfairly disadvantage those who are already at the top of the waiting list, especially those with rare blood types.
This approach would presumably bring many potential donors to the registry, and would unify the registry policy and living organ donation policy more generally. By offering assistance primarily to existing programs, this approach utilizes the expertise that the regionally-based paired and list donation programs already possess.
In this way, federal funds are not wasted creating new programs when well-managed programs already exist.
Passage of the Act would facilitate this creative form of donation, allowing generous potential donors to become actual donors. Through these measures, the bonds of community could be both widened and deepened, binding individuals to one another through mutual acts of generosity. Yet these forms of donation raise some ethical questions. First, some argue that paired donation and list donation involve the giving of organs for valuable consideration, which is forbidden by current law.
By way of proof, consider one of the main arguments in support of paired and list donation. click
Legalizing organ sales essay: argumentative essay: should organs be sold or donated essay
Supporters claim that these forms of donation would increase the organ supply by encouraging those who would not normally donate to give an organ. What encourages these donors, or perhaps entices them, is that once they give an organ their loved one will gain a corresponding advantage by receiving either a transplanted organ or a higher place on the organ waiting list.
Without this enticement, many of these donors would probably not even consider giving. Donation in these instances involves more than freely offering an organ with no expectation of gaining any advantage from the gift. Paired and list donation are, some might argue, forms of organ trading.
They thus corrupt the morally preferable practice of pure gifting. The second criticism applies only to list donation.
As a quick reminder, list donation occurs when a donor gives a hiring someone to do plan to the transplant waiting list and the donor's intended recipient then in turn either receives the next available biologically compatible kidney or gains a higher place on the waiting list.
Generally, those who are waiting for a blood-type O kidney face the longest wait of the different blood-types on the list because of the scarcity of O organs. An ethical dilemma arises when a person who is waiting for a blood-type O kidney has a biologically incompatible donor who is willing to donate a kidney to the general waitlist in return for seeing his or her loved one receive the next available O kidney or move up the O waitlist.
Those who do not have a willing list donor must then wait even longer for a relatively scarce O kidney in an already slow moving line. The third criticism also applies only to list donation. As noted previously, with list donation, the intended recipient of a donor who gives a kidney to the general kidney list receives a deceased donor kidney.
Deceased donor kidneys have a shorter average lifespan than living donor kidneys. The ethical dilemma raised in this criticism is whether or not it is just for an intended recipient to receive a kidney that will not last as long as the kidney that the intended recipient's donor is donating to the general kidney list.
It is estimated that for a realistic maximum conversion rate using paired donation there must be around incompatible pairs registered. With pairs, roughly 50 percent of the recipients of these pairs would receive a kidney. To reach legalizing organ sales essay 55 percent conversion rate, the registry would need 5, incompatible pairs.
List donation only exacerbates this problem. When programs permit list donation, the number of incompatible pairs on the paired donation registry usually drops because these pairs are turning to list donation. When these pairs leave the paired donation registry, it becomes more difficult for paired donation programs to achieve the realistic maximum conversion rate. Between the two of them, they have accounted for slightly more than additional transplants why doing a literature review the six years they have been used.
With nearly seventy-thousand Americans https://essay-edupro.icu/v9/i9.php for kidneys, some see these options as welcome but wholly inadequate. Donation after Controlled Cardiac Death In certain, well-defined clinical circumstances, doctors and family members may decide that continued life-sustaining treatment no longer benefits the life a given patient still has.
In some cases, these dying patients are potential organ donors, whose organs can be removed once death is declared according to cardiac criteria. The practice of so-called "organ donation after controlled cardiac death" has been gradually increasing in recent years: in there were only 11 such donations, whereas in there were Those deceased donations produced kidneys, livers, 47 pancreata, and 10 lungs.
Donation after controlled cardiac death should be practiced only within the legalize organ sales essay of an explicit hospital policy articulating clear moral and clinical criteria. A morally sound hospital policy would include the following six criteria.
First, the decision to withdraw interventions must be made independently of the decision to donate. Second, donors must receive the same end-of-life palliative care as non-donors. Third, the hospital should provide the potential donor's family with the option of being present when life support is withdrawn and, in general, take every measure to permit family and friends to say goodbye in a dignified way.
In addition, families should not incur any additional costs related to donation. Fourth, procurement teams must wait the recommended amount of time two to five minutes after the permanent cessation of heart function before beginning the removal of the organs.
Fifth, the medical staff overseeing withdrawal of interventions must not hasten the patient's death, even if the organs might become un-transplantable. Sixth, if patients do not die quickly enough to become donors, a procedure should be in place to move these patients to a location where they can die more peacefully.
Several arguments can be marshaled in support of an expansion of the practice of donation after controlled cardiac death. Essay about iphone, it would provide the opportunity for individuals and families to donate in situations which now commonly do not lead to donation.
And third, establishing clear protocols for donation after controlled cardiac death would help to ensure that a bright line is maintained between those patients who are already dead by neurological criteria and those who are still alive, although severely neurologically compromised. There are currently a few organizations that are attempting to further establish ethically sound donation after controlled cardiac death protocols. One of these groups is the Organ Donation Breakthrough Collaborative.
The Collaborative began in the spring of when the Department of Health and Human Services paired up with key figures from the transplant community to spread "best practices" that aim at increasing access to transplantable organs. Education and training of medical and other health professional staff-in hospitals, organ procurement organizations, and legalize organ sales essay centers-are central to the initiative.
The Collaborative also supports research to improve surgical techniques, organ preservation, and matching with potential recipients. OPTN adopted a resolution in August to include in its bylaws a requirement that all participating organizations have a donation after cardiac death protocol in place by January 1, The organizations subject to this requirement include all OPOs and all transplant hospitals in which procurements occur.
The requirement would not require hospitals without transplant centers to have protocols because the OPTN has no jurisdiction over these centers. A requirement to develop donation after controlled cardiac death protocols in every hospital is currently being considered by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations JCAHO.
Concerns expressed by critics of donation after controlled cardiac death fall into a few general classes.
The essay “Organ Sales Will Save Lives” written by Joanna McKay, delves a lot deeper into Essay Legalization Of Legalizing Organ Sales. Darian Riazzi Eng 3/29/ Rebecca Foy Legalizing Organ Sales Most people are aware that the black market is defined as the “illicit trade in goods or.
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