Thesis airport ground handling
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Ramp Safety Practices. Included are data from airports, airlines, and GSPs, and collaborative efforts discovered or documented as part of the study process such as FOD programs, safety meetings, violation and citation programs, and training initiatives.
Other staff present on ramps includes airport police and fire, emergency response and medic vehicles, FAA offi- essay on pollution in 400 words, airport operators, maintenance engineers, airline crew, and vendor and concessions personnel. The presence of a large number of thesis airport ground handling utilizing equipment in a relatively small area, often under considerable time pressure, creates an environment in which injuries and fatalities and aircraft and equipment damage can occur Dillingham Typical activities involved with the operation and servicing of air- craft on the ramp include cleaning, catering, refueling, bag- gage and cargo handling, toilet and potable water servicing, maintenance, and transport of passengers and crew onto and off the aircraft Health and Safety Executive Accord- ing to Airport Operations, ramp service types can be divided into distinct areas as presented in the following list from Air- port Operations Ashford et al.
A broad array of ground service contractual agreements exists including a large percentage of airlines that provide support to their own and other airlines, GSPs that are out- sourced to multiple airlines and offer comprehensive above and below wing services, specialized services such as fueling and catering, and airports that offer ground support services to their airline customers.
This mix of service arrangements can result in multiple providers operating at the same time at an airline arrival or departure gate. Typically, the cost savings for outsourcing are gained through leveraging staff and equipment across multiple airlines and by reducing labor rates inherent in airline organizations Grossman As part of the Ramp Safety Synthesis study, survey ques- tions were submitted to airlines and ground handlers to collect information on ground service offerings.
The majority of airlines surveyed indicated that fuel- ing is outsourced more often 7 to 0 than any other service listed in the survey. The next highest outsourced service was reported as catering 6 to 1with one airline providing both in-house and outsourced catering and one airline providing only in-house catering.
Generally air- lines surveyed demonstrated that some ground services are retained in-house and others are outsourced; none of the air- lines surveyed retain all ground services in-house nor do they offer source ground services to other airlines. Of the four GSPs surveyed, one is a catering service and one a fueling company; the two remaining GSPs are large national and international GSPs offering a variety of ground support services.
Despite the small size of the survey group, responses regarding service offerings click to see more compiled and are presented in Table 3.
Select all that apply. The two other GSPs offer similar services such as aircraft ground movement; aircraft, passenger, baggage, cargo, and mail handling; and lav and water. In some cases each GSP also provides load control and maintenance services. Safety at airports in the United States is a shared responsibility among the FAA, airlines, and airports. Table 4 presents a count by airport type and ramp oversight responsibilities and Table 5 lists comments from survey respondents regarding types of services.
Comments included a variety of ramp oversight configurations such as shared re- sponsibilities with airlines and oversight of GSE typically pas- senger loading bridges and gate management. One of the challenges for standardization of the ramp area is the practice of airports leasing gates to airline tenants. Typically, tenants have the authority to manage the gate area in compliance with their company operations including mark- ings, equipment type and use, and marshalling practices.
Chapter Two, Ramp Operations and Safety, Ramp Safety Practices, The National Academies Press
In one of our terminals we also have oversight of the apron entering the ramp. Airport maintains airport-owned jet bridges. Each airline is responsible for their respective ramp markings. Air Traffic Control controls taxi and airlines manage the gate areas. We maintain the jet bridges. Also, with regard to exclusive gate use, airport re- spondents indicated that airlines typically have preferential use but not necessarily exclusive use; exclusive use implies the airline has the sole authority to operate the gate, whereas preferential allows use of the gate by other air carriers if the preferred airline is not using the gate.
See Figure 2 for a sum- mary of responses by airport type. Airports were also surveyed as to whether ramp safety meetings occurred on a regular basis Does your airport con- duct regular ramp safety meetings plan montreal business writer tenants?
Figure 3 presents responses by airport type and additional clarification through comments is included in Table 7. Does your airport manage gates through common use or exclusive use agreements?
Type Comment 1 Medium Hub We have increased our efforts in this area. Bag make-up areas are currently transitioning from leased space no operations inspections to common use. Bag make-up areas are patrolled numerous times a day. Bag make-up areas are inspected at least once a day. However, no safety-specific checklist exists beyond the self-inspection checklist.
However, we do hold annual winter operation safety meetings with all tenants. However, safety concerns and issues are addressed at each of them, as needed. Comments regarding meeting format and frequency essay extended muet writing that theses airport ground handling airports consoli- date safety meetings with other standing meetings such as station manager meetings and anticipate that in some cases meeting frequency will change from monthly to quarterly and that urgent issues will be resolved as needed.
Airports were surveyed regarding collaborative FOD pro- grams with tenants to assess whether airlines and theses airport ground handling worked together on ramp safety initiatives. Table 8 lists comments from airports regarding oversight and collaborative efforts of FOD programs. A number of national and international orga- nizations provide training in conjunction with ramp and safety documentation.
Additionally, many offer magazines, online resources, and blogs that provide up-to-date information and evolving trends and tools. Table 9 provides a list of resources collected as part of this synthesis study; the list is not consid- ered comprehensive and is intended to reflect readily available information regarding ramp operations, safety, and training in industry.
GAO on aviation runway and ramp safety, efforts to improve airport ramp safety are hindered by a lack of complete thesis airport ground handling and incident data. Such data could help the FAA and aviation industry to understand the nature and extent of the problem as a first step to identifying what actions are needed to reduce ramp accidents and inci- dents.
Airport Safety Video/ Ramp Handling/ Airport Ground Handling Staff
The GAO found no comprehensive nonfatal injury data on ramp accidents or incidents. According to the GAO report, the federal government has generally taken an indirect role overseeing ramp safety; airlines and airports typically control the ramp areas using their own policies and proce- dures.
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Meanwhile, some airlines and airports have initiated their own efforts to address ramp safety and aviation organi- zations have begun collecting ramp accident and incident data Dillingham Addi- tionally, the FSF noted the limited amount of data available for its study of damage and injury on airport ramps Vandel According to a recent thesis airport ground handling, the injury rate to employees of scheduled airlines is 3.
The tenants also are required to keep their lease space and rented space clear of FOD. Some tenants are doing a weekly FOD walk in their area which helps out greatly. The airport conducts ramp inspections including FOD pick-up twice a month at the common use gates in Terminal D.
The major airline also has a FOD day once a year in which the airport board participates.
At the monthly Partnership Meeting a drawing from the collected names is held and one individual is selected to receive a reward. Annually, the company that had the most monthly rewards receives a plaque from the airport.
Field reference publication containing recommended industry standards and procedures on airside safety; load control; baggage, cargo, and mail handling; aircraft movement control; aircraft thesis airport ground handling and departure control systems. The majority of the fatalities in these acci- dents were ground workers The results of the GAO sur- vey indicated that the how write a narrative essay on FAA, OSHA, airport, or airlines could take with the greatest potential for preventing ramp accidents was promoting a thesis airport ground handling culture in the ramp area Dillingham They went on to suggest a number of actions that could be taken to mitigate accidents, such as providing better training of marshallers and wingwalkers to include scenario-based training, main- taining highly visible pavement markings, and establishing and enforcing vehicle speed limits on the ramp.
In the most recent survey, which was conducted inthe total number of respondents reflected airports, representing only a portion of U. In Table 10, the rate is based on accidents and incidents per 1, departures.
Total injuries to personnel on the ramp for the year was 1 fatal; 35 severe; minorwhereas injuries to pas- sengers totaled 0 fatal; 25 severe; minor. The number of aircraft movements documented in the ACI survey increased by one million. This resulted in a higher rate of incidents and accidents per 1, movements from 0.
The thesis airport ground handling of incidents and accidents involving aircraft increased from 0. The rate of injury to personnel and passengers decreased in to 0. During the year study period, the NTSB recorded 80 ground crew accidents involving landing, taxiing, or standing com- mercial airline aircraft.
I walked down a long enough that was connected to the aircraft. To my favourite, the inside was a lot smaller than it had bad to be. The isle I strode to get to my essay seat was small and compact, only large enough for one daily to pass through.
Grabowski concluded that intervention programs for airport ground personnel should emphasize the safe operation of the aircraft equipment and ground vehicles and that some of the injuries to ground crew members might be avoided through improved design of commonly used equipment Grabowski et al. The factors leading to ground crew error were identified as: 1.
Physical fatigue, and 6.
Contribution to the organization of ground handling management at airports
Personal health and medication Lu et al. Wenner and Drury conducted an analysis of ground damage incident reports from major air carriers cover- ing the period from January through April The analysis of ground damage incidents in their study showed that there are relatively few factors that contribute to most ground damage incidents.
They suggest that by introducing a small number of interventions a large number of ground damage inci- dents can be prevented. These latent failures cannot be eliminated without mak- ing changes in the system further upstream than the mechanics or even the first line supervisors. Changes must be initiated by upper levels of management and must become integrated into the existing maintenance system Wenner and Drury Equipment to Equipment Damage Total D Equipment to Property Damage Total E Injuries to Personnel or Passengers Injuries to personnel 1 fatal; 35 severe; minor Injuries to passengers 0 fatal; 25 severe; minor Total G 1 2 1 1 7 2 6 2 2 No.
A thesis airport ground handling of error that can result in an accident or incident is a failure to properly cooperate and coordinate activities during aircraft operations. The Health and Safety Executive of the United Kingdom points to three key elements that must be accomplished to help reduce the risk of accident, incident, or injury on the ramp: 1.
Ensure cooperation and coordination among employees; 2. Proper control of the various operators; and 3. The proper assessment and control of the risks indi- viduals are exposed to. Safety attitude of man- agement, efficient performance feedback, well-designed and developed motivation strategies, the existence of an adequate decision process, company philosophy toward safety as a pri- ority, optimum upward and downward communication, and a good reporting system have been identified since the early s as being components of a safe organization.
Company policies toward safety, emphasis on training or general safety strategies, and risk perception are several of the identified dimensions that promote a safe organizational operating en- vironment. Work motivation is one of the batman arkham knight essay powerful psychosocial processes that can have a positive impact on promoting safe behaviors Cabrera please click for source al.
Hayward noted that airline ramp employees at a large airport base may be very different in terms of their sub-cultural atti- tudinal and behavioral norms from those at a regional airport, even though they work in the same industry, for the same car- rier, in the same job category.
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Deregulation of Ground Handling Services at Airports: thesis airport ground handling
Customer service element, 3. Moral leadership Garetson Although lost-time injuries are not considered an accurate barometer of safety on a ramp, making a ramp manager or supervisor accountable for safety performance better ensures a focus on safe operations, as compared with being evaluated on on-time performance CASA Ek and Akelsson studied the safety culture of a ground handling company at a Swedish airport and came away with these suggestions for improvement: 1 provide anony- mous distribution of anomaly reporting forms, 2 provide education in the area of human error, 3 provide this web page about the importance of having a safety culture with continu- ous improvement, and 4 perform proactive risk analyses.
These accidents affect air- port operations and result in personnel injuries and damage to aircraft, facilities, and ground-support equipment. Activities in the ramp area can also affect the safety of air crew and passengers once they leave the ramp area.
Deregulation of Ground Handling Services at Airports, Aline Dürr, Diploma Thesis, Business economics, Economic Policy, Publish your bachelor's or. How has digital transformation changed airport ground operations? Although the driver behind digitalization of airport ground operations, the focus is on data- driven PhD thesis, University of Central Florida ().
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